# Manuals/calci/COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS

COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS (Array,GroupBy,NewTableFlag)

where,

• is array of integers or reference to the cells containing array,
• is a method that performs the analysis by Columns or Rows,
• is a flag that determines how the output should be displayed.
• COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS() calculates the average of product of deviations of values from the means of each data set.

## Description

COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS(Array, GroupBy, NewTableFlag)

• Covariance is a method used to determine the relationship between two data sets.
• can be numbers or can be names, arrays or references containing numbers.
• Values containing text, logical values or empty cells are ignored.
• Argument can be "Rows" or "Columns".
• can be a logical value TRUE or FALSE. If omitted, Calci assumes it to be TRUE.
• If is TRUE, output is displayed on a new ZSpace cube. If is FALSE, output is displayed on the same spreadsheet where command is written.
• If data is invalid, Calci displays NaN error message.

## ZOS

• The syntax is to calculate this function in ZOS is • is a method that performs the analysis by Columns or Rows,
• is a flag that determines how the output should be displayed which is either TRUE or FALSE.
• For e.g., COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS([[10,13,16,19,22],[29,27,34,41,56]],"columns",true)
• COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS([[33..39],[57..63]],"columns",false)

## Examples

Consider the following table with two arrays as input data.

 Column1 Column2 Column3 Column4 Row1 5 3 Row2 7 8 Row3 12 8 Row4 17 18 Row5 41 34 Row6
```=COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS(A2:B5,"Columns",TRUE)
=COVARIANCEDATAANALYSIS(A2:B6,"Rows",TRUE)
```

Output for the above examples is displayed respectively.

Covariance by Columns
Column1 Column2
Column1 21.6875 23.4375
Column2 23.4375 29.6875

Covariance by Rows
Row1 Row2 Row3 Row4 Row5
Row1 1 -0.5 2 -0.5 3.5
Row2 -0.5 0.25 -1 0.25 -1.75
Row3 2 -1 4 -1 7
Row4 -0.5 0.25 -1 0.25 -1.75
Row5 3.5 -1.75 7 -1.75 12.25

Covariance